Guide Multiracial Americans and Social Class: The Influence of Social Class on Racial Identity

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  1. Multiracial Americans and Social Class
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What are multiracial Americans' explanations for racial inequality in the United States? Multiracial Americans and Social Class is a key text for undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, and academics in the fields of sociology, race and ethnic studies, social stratification, race relations, and cultural studies. Le Castilla and Melissa R. Mary E. Campbell See All Customer Reviews.


Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Buy Online, Pick up in Store is currently unavailable, but this item may be available for in-store purchase. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview As the racial hierarchy shifts and inequality between Americans widens, it is important to understand the impact of social class on the rapidly growing multiracial population.

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Multiracial Americans and Social Class

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Chapter 3: The Multiracial Identity Gap

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We report all measures, manipulations, and data exclusions. The method involved two phases, one in which mental images of different social classes were assessed, and one in which a separate group of participants evaluated these images. For the image generation phase, this is a between-subjects design. For the image rating phase, this becomes a fully within-subjects design.

Prior experiments on visual representation of outgroup faces by Dotsch et al.

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We thus aimed to collect 35 participants per each of our three social class conditions, resulting in a final sample of participants. Participants were students in an introductory psychology class who received course credit. They were on average Their average subjective self-rating of socioeconomic status Adler et al. Participants completed questionnaire items concerning their explicit attitudes toward the economically disadvantaged Stevenson and Medler, at a mass testing session 4—8 weeks prior to their participation in the laboratory.

This 9-item Likert scale assesses agreement with negative statements about poor people e. The response scale ranges from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. Participants reported to a laboratory for the main experimental session. Prior to the lab sessions, a biracial base photo Krosch and Amodio, was superimposed with sinusoidal noise patterns and the inverse of the noise patterns Dotsch and Todorov, repeatedly in order to generate pairs of face-images that were presented to participants one pair at a time on a computer screen in a private room.

On each trial, they were simply asked to choose which of the two pictures best matched the relevant criterion e. The composite images from each participant within a condition were then averaged to generate an overall composite image for that condition, separately for the participants low versus high in economic prejudice, resulting in a total of six final composite images. Three participants were excluded due to excessive missing data, one did not provide affirmative consent, and two indicated that they were not careful while taking the survey in a quality check included at the very end of the study.

The final sample consisted of 84 participants.

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Participants were told that the researchers were interested in seeing how well they could discern information from blurry photos. They were asked to rate the six images created during the image-generation phase on 15 different trait dimensions. The order of image presentation was randomized. The primary dependent variable was stereotypical Blackness. We also included skin tone as another measure of racial categorization.

Additionally, based on work examining the stereotype content of poor individuals, we also assessed stereotypes such laziness, motivation, and intelligence Fiske et al. Next, based on work suggesting that low-SES individuals are dehumanized, we also assessed a group of traits that have been considered to reflect the degree of perceived humanity of social targets e. Finally, participants were shown each of the six images again in a new random order, and they were asked to categorize the race of each image. Composite images generated by participants. The top row shows the composite images selected by the relatively more economically prejudiced participants as representing poor 1a , middle income 1b , or rich 1c faces.

Multiracial Americans - Wikipedia

The bottom row shows the composite images of relatively less prejudiced participants for the corresponding social classes. For the racial categorization task, we first created a dichotomous variable reflecting whether or not the image raters classified a given composite image as Black.

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Results paralleled the stereotypic Blackness trait ratings. We analyzed this index using a logit mixed-model approach, given the dichotomous nature of this variable e. In other words, low-prejudice individuals imputed relatively similar levels of Blackness to the poor and middle class, whereas high-prejudice individuals imputed much more Blackness to the poor than to the middle class. Black classifications of composite images.

Results are depicted in Figure 3. As the figure indicates, there was a main effect of social class condition, F 2, Examined differently, poor people were represented as similar in their humanity by those high vs. Perceived humanity of composite images.